LEOLEO: Literacy Education Online

APA Electronic Media


Examples of documentation for the most common types of electronic media are illustrated in this document.

However, you might need to use a reference for a source which is not listed on this web page. In such a case, look over the general form given in the document APA: General Guidelines or refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001). Choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format.

 

 


Publication on CD-ROM

Anderson, D., R. Cavalier, & P. K. Covey. A right to die: The Dax Coward case

[CD-ROM]. (1996). London: Routledge.

 

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Article from Conference Proceedings on a Website


Hjelsvold, R., & S. Vdaygiri. Web-based personalization and management of interactive

video. Proceedings of the Tenth International World Wide Web Conference,

1–5 May 2001, Hong Kong. WWW10. Retrieved July 19, 2001, from

http://www20.org/cdrom/papers/405/index.html

 

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Professional Website


International Association of Business Communicators. (2000). IABC. [Online].

Retrieved January 13, 2001, from http://www.iabc.com/homepage.htm

 

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Online Book


Machiavelli, N. (1909). The Prince. (N. H. Thomson, Trans.) New York: P.F.

Collier & Son. [Online]. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Retrieved

August 5, 2001, from http://www.bartleby.com/36/1/

 

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Online Report


Hauswirth, M. (2000, November 12). A reference architecture for push systems.

[Online]. Technical Report TUV-1841-98-05. Technical University of Vienna,

Information Systems Institute, Distributed Systems Group. Retrieved January 18,

2001, from http://www.infosys.tuwien.ac.at/Staff/pooh/papers/ PushArch/

 

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Article in an Online Journal


Wigand, R.T., & R. I. Benjamin. (1995). Electronic commerce: Effects on electronic

markets. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication [Online]. Retrieved

November 20, 2000, from http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol1/ issue3/wigand.html

 

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Article in an Online Magazine


Schneider, C. (2001, July 21). The Goodwill Games: How to tackle FASB's new merger

rules." CFO.com [Online]. Retrieved October 17, 2001, from http://www.cfo.com/FASBguide

 

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Article in an Online Newsletter


Deus, L., & M. Maybury. (1998, June). MITRE evaluates collaborative tools for defense

information infrastructure. The Edge: The MITRE Advanced Technology Newsletter

2(1) Retrieved August 3, 1999, from http://www.mitre.org/pubs/edge/june_98/

 

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Article in an Online Newspaper


Banerjee, N., & A. C. Revkin. (2001, July 21). OPEC leaders indicate they are set to cut

output again. The New York Times on the Web [Online]. Retrieved August 14, 2001,

from http://www.nytimes.com/archives

 

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Online Review


Kerr, S. (2001, July 22). "Looking for history": A subtle observer of Latin America. [Review

of the book Looking for History by A. Guillermoprieto.] The New York Times on the

Web [Online]. Retrieved September 2, 2001, from http://www.nytimes.com/archives

 

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Online Editorial


Labaton, S. (2001, July). Head of S.E.C. aims to simplify agency's regulations [Editorial].

The New York Times on the Web [Online]. Retrieved July 20, 2001, from

http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/19/business/19CND-SECURE.html

 

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Online Letter to the Editor


Hatchl, S. (2001, July 17). Campaign Reform [Letter to editor]. latimes.com [Online].

Retrieved July 19, 200,1 from http://latimes.com/news/opinion/la-

00005853jul17.story?coll=la%Dnews%2Dcomment%2Dopinions

 

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Online Interview


Lockwood, A. T. (2001, May 2). Community collaboration and social capital: An

interview with Gary G. Wehlage. [Interview with Gary G. Wehlage]. Leaders

for Tomorrow's Schools. [Online]. Retrieved July 19, 2001, from

http://www.ncrel.org/cscd/pubs/lead21/2-1m.htm

 

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Online Posting to Listserv or Newsgroup


Fanderclai, T. (2000, September 13). MOO ports and Napster lockdown. Message

posted to TechRhet discussion list, archived at http://www.egroups.com/group/TechRhet

 

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Email

Personal communications, including email, are considered nonrecoverable; data that is not recoverable is cited in the text only, not in the reference list. (See APA In-text Citations.)

 

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Online Synchronous Communication

APA recommends that electronic communication that is not persistent and therefore nonrecoverable be treated as personal communication and cited in-text only.

 

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The website for the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is located at http://www.apastyle.org/, and information about citing electronic sources is available at http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html.


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LEO: Literacy Education Online

This page was written by Judith Kilborn for the Write Place, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN, and may be copied for educational purposes only. If you copy this document, please include our copyright notice and the name of the writer; if you revise it, please add your name to the list of writers.

URL: http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/apaelecmedia.html

Updated: 19 February 2004